Added: Bari Groom - Date: 27.03.2022 06:37 - Views: 20874 - Clicks: 6293
There has long been skepticism among both scientists and laypersons that male bisexual orientation exists. Skeptics have claimed that men who self-identify as bisexual are actually homosexual or heterosexual. The existence of female bisexuality has been less controversial. This controversy can be resolved using objective, genital responses of men to male and female erotic stimuli.
We combined nearly all available data from eight American, British, and Canadian studies to form a dataset of more than men, much larger than any individual study, and conducted rigorous statistical tests. provided compelling evidence that bisexual-identified men tend to show bisexual genital and subjective arousal patterns. Male sexual orientation is expressed on a continuum rather than dichotomously.
The question whether some men have a bisexual orientation—that is, whether they are substantially sexually aroused and attracted to both sexes—has remained controversial among both scientists and laypersons. Skeptics believe that male sexual orientation can only be homosexual or heterosexual, and that bisexual identification reflects nonsexual concerns, such as a desire to deemphasize homosexuality.
Although most bisexual-identified men report that they are attracted to both men and women, self-report data cannot refute these claims. Patterns of physiological genital arousal to male and female erotic stimuli can provide compelling evidence for male sexual orientation.
In contrast, most women provide similar physiological responses to male and female stimuli. We investigated whether men who self-report bisexual feelings tend to produce bisexual arousal patterns. Prior studies of this issue have been small, used potentially invalid statistical tests, and produced inconsistent findings. We combined nearly all ly published data from eight studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canadayielding a sample of to men depending on analysis. All participants were cisgender males. These findings support the view that male sexual orientation contains a range, from heterosexuality, to bisexuality, to homosexuality.
The status of male bisexuality as a sexual orientation—that is, the idea that some men are sexually aroused and attracted to both sexes—has a controversial history 1. Although some men identify as bisexual and have sexual experiences with men and women, the extent to which this reflects an underlying bisexual orientation has been questioned. Early sex researchers Krafft-Ebing 2 and Hirschfeld 3 believed that bisexual behavior and identification occurred primarily among monosexual i.
For example, some homosexual men identify as bisexual, or engage in sex with women, due to social pressures that favor heterosexuality. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. With his scale, Kinsey demonstrated that self-reported bisexual attraction and behavior are not rare. However, because the scale relied on self-reports, could not provide definitive evidence for bisexual orientation.
For example, surveys have shown that a large proportion of men who identify as gay or homosexual had gone through a and transient phase of bisexual identification 56. For this reason, these men may have more difficulty accepting bisexuality as it challenges their binary conceptualizations of sexual orientation 7. Self-reported measures of sexual attraction, interest, and arousal are useful and ubiquitous in sex research. When self-reports are questioned, however, other valid measures are desirable.
One promising approach to empirical verification of self-reported male bisexuality as an orientation uses penile plethysmography i. Examples of stimuli used in these studies include videos of sexual interactions between actors or of solitary actors masturbating 11 Such an approach has several advantages: It relies on physiological processes rather than self-report; it is difficult to consciously manipulate 13 ; and, for men, sexual arousal to attractive women or men is arguably equivalent to sexual orientation 1.
This approach has been used in a handful of studies focusing on male bisexuality with mixed. Some studies failed to provide evidence that bisexual-identified men had bisexual arousal patterns 11 One other study with stringent recruitment criteria i. A recent study using less stringent recruitment criteria also found evidence that bisexual-identified men had bisexual physiological arousal patterns All existing studies have been of small to modest size; the largest had participants. Notably, across these studies, bisexual-identified men self-reported subjective arousal to both male and female stimuli, even in samples where their genital arousal did not reflect such a pattern.
research may have not employed sufficiently rigorous statistical tests, further complicating the question of whether bisexual-identified men show bisexual physiological arousal patterns. Crucial predictions regarding bisexual orientation concern U-shaped or inverted U-shaped distributions, which studies tested via quadratic regression. However, this test may be insufficient to reliably detect U-shaped distributions This is because ificant quadratic regressions can occur if a linear regression changes slope over the range of the predictor, even if the of the slope does not change.
Demonstrating U-shaped distributions without the threat of incorrect interpretation requires showing slope reversal from low to high values of the predictor. For example, if the left arm of the estimated regression slope is ificantly positive, then the other arm needs to be ificantly negative in order to result in a valid, inverse U-shaped estimate.
With the limitations of work in mind, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which men who self-report bisexual orientation exhibit bisexual genital and self-reported arousal patterns. These studies were conducted over the course of approximately two decades, from the years to Kinsey scores range from 0 exclusively heterosexual to 3 equal attraction to both sexes to 6 exclusively homosexual.
Scores of 0 and 6 are usually considered monosexual, and 1 to 5 nonmonosexual. Scores of 2 to 4 are generally accepted to comprise the bisexual range of the Kinsey scale This study focuses only on male sexual orientation, despite the equal scientific importance of understanding female sexual orientation, for several related reasons. The question of whether bisexual arousal patterns exist has been less controversial about women than men 1.
Historically, there was no parallel debate about female sexual orientation to that between skeptics [e. Recent scientific developments have supported important and potentially relevant differences in the expression of male and female sexual orientation. In laboratory research, the large majority of women exhibit similar subjective and physiological sexual arousal to both male and female stimuli, despite heterosexual identification 18 Male, but not female, self-reported sexual orientation shows a bimodal distribution 21supporting the idea that male bisexuality is relatively uncommon whereas female bisexuality is less so.
Thus, converging lines of evidence suggest that there are important differences in the expression of male and female sexual orientation, perhaps especially bisexuality. Consequently, research exploring the validity of bisexual identification—and especially research comparing the genital response of bisexual and monosexual persons—has been pursued more vigorously for male than for female sexual orientation. The men cumulatively studied in the research on male sexual orientation have been aggregated to comprise the large sample used in the present study.
Only participants who produced adequate arousal for our main analyses were included. The figure shows that the relative response to female and male stimuli closely tracked the Kinsey scale, on the whole. The y axis is measured in units of within-subjects z-scores. Exclusively heterosexual and homosexual men who have Kinsey scores of 0 and 6, respectively showed larger mean differences in their arousal to male and female stimuli compared with men who have intermediate Kinsey scores i.
Although this pattern is consistent with the possibility that intermediate Kinsey scores are associated with relatively bisexual arousal patterns, it is also consistent with an alternative explanation. It would be possible to create the mean arousal scores of men with Kinsey scores 1 to 5 which appear relatively bisexual by mixing men with arousal patterns similar to the means for Kinsey 0 exclusively heterosexual with those similar to Kinsey 6 exclusively homosexual.
Thus, depicted in Fig. Two alternative analyses can provide more definitive evidence 11 Both rely on variables depicted or derived from those in Fig. These variables were determined empirically for each individual. Men have relatively bisexual arousal patterns if 1 their responses to their less arousing sex exceeds that of other men, and 2 the difference between their responses to their more and to their less arousing sex is less than that of other men.
Values for arousal to the less arousing sex should show an inverted U-shaped distribution if men with Kinsey scores in the bisexual range show bisexual arousal patterns, and a flat distribution if they do not. The first criterion for bisexual arousal patterns is demonstrated by considering that men with a bisexual arousal pattern should show more arousal to male stimuli compared with heterosexual men and more arousal to female stimuli compared with homosexual men. Thus, the first criterion is that bisexual men should show more arousal to erotic stimuli depicting their empirically defined less-arousing sex, compared with homosexual and heterosexual men.
The second criterion is demonstrated by considering that men with a bisexual arousal pattern should show an especially small uned difference between their arousal to male and female stimuli, compared with heterosexual and homosexual men. This difference is equivalent to that between responses to the more arousing sex minus responses to the less arousing sex. We henceforth refer to the two key dependent variables as Minimum Arousal i. The two dependent variables derived from Fig. This strong correspondence is partly an artifact of standardizing within participants using only three scores i.
In addition, we created a composite variable using Minimum Arousal and Absolute Arousal Difference, by standardizing both across participants, changing the of the Absolute Arousal Difference and then taking their average. We refer to this variable as the Bisexual Arousal Composite, and men with a relatively bisexual arousal pattern should have high scores on it.
Although the composite was almost entirely redundant with Minimum Arousal and Absolute Arousal Difference—as the latter are with each other—for the ipsatized data, we retained all three variables because in some subsequent analyses using untransformed data, they were much less highly correlated. If men who self-report Kinsey scores in the bisexual range indeed have relatively bisexual arousal patterns, then both Minimum Arousal and the Bisexual Arousal Composite should show an inverted U-shaped distribution across the Kinsey range i.
Conversely, if men who indicate that they are relatively bisexual have monosexual arousal patterns in actuality, then the values for these three variables should be evenly distributed across the Kinsey scale, and we should have a flat, horizontal line, rather than a U-shaped distribution. A rigorous demonstration that bisexual men have relatively bisexual arousal patterns requires a change of of regression slopes across the Kinsey scale.
The method proposed by Simonsohn 16the two-lines test, requires establishing that, for some break point on the predictor variable, if one conducts separate regression analyses using data on either side of the point, both regression slopes are statistically ificant but of opposite. We modified this method as follows. Our modification was motivated by both necessity and a desire to explore robustness.
The middle of the Kinsey distribution is 3, and a Kinsey score of 3 ifies the greatest degree of bisexuality. As such, that score is the best guess for the inversion point of the hypothesized U-shaped and inverted U-shaped distributions. However, the Kinsey score 3 is unavailable as a break point because the break point should not include scores that actually exist in the data. The analysis with 2. Note that, because our Kinsey score variable includes only whole s, any break point between 2 and 3 is equivalent to a break point of 2.Single bisexual wanted
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